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印度高等教育

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大學和學院是印度高等教育的核心。研究主題和教學科目涵蓋甚廣,從詩歌文學、電腦工程到航太領域都有涉及。多數大學和高等教育研究中心是獨立運作經營的。大學是由其附屬學院和專業的院、系聯合組成。大體來說,附屬學院教授本科課程,而專業院、系負責引導研究生的學習和更近一步的研究。大學負責決定入學標準、舉辦完成學士學位的考試及負責學位的授予。

有些類型的大學設有大學和研究所學程,教授通識及專業課程,這些學校便沒有附屬學院。

還有另一類大學和學院,同時教授大學和研究所階段的專業技術課程,諸如印度技術學院(Indian Institute of Technology)、博拉技術學院(Birla Institute of Technology)、全印醫藥科學院(All India Institute of Medical Sciences)、印度森林研究院(Indian Forest Research Institute)、印度動物醫學研究院(Indian Veterinary Research Institute),有的學院只提供研究所學程和研究主題,如印度農業研究院(Indian Agricultural Research Institute)和醫學研究生院(Post Graduate Institute of Medical Research)。

印度高等教育以其獨有的特色、靈活性和高品質吸引越來越多國際學生前往學習。相對於美國、西歐國家或是澳洲昂貴的學費,印度的高等教育仍是由官方高度支持的,讓更多人可以承擔。

印度的大學及大學級學院

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印度現有226所大學級機構,包括39所"被認可的大學"。其中155所是傳統大學,34所農業大學(包括漁業和牲畜醫學,園藝學和奶品技術),17所工程與科技大學(包括6所技術學院),14所醫藥科學技術大學,一所國家法律大學,人口科學院,印度統計學院,印度科學院,一所新聞大學,一所生命科學(阿育吠陀)大學,5所女子大學,6所梵語大學,7所開放式大學,7所音樂和美術大學,一所美術史、環保和博物館學大學。

有超過8000所學院附屬于這些大學,據估計有將近500萬學生在讀。上面提到 的學院中有超過150所提供MBBS和更高的醫學學位,74所牙醫學,90所製藥學,62 所護理學,170所農業及相關學科,428所工程學,116所Ayurveda和75所順勢療法。 大多數常規的大學和學院提供基礎科學、社會科學和人文科學(包括外語、國際關 、社會研究、教育和法律),BA, BSc, BCom, Bed, LLB, MA, MSc, Med 和一些其他更高 的學位。292所學院提供工商管理碩士課程及相關課程,其中有4所專門的管理學院,是高等教育中心。除了構成大學的學院外,還有大量附屬於高校系統的科學與工業研究委員會、Bhaba原子研究中心、印度農業研究委員會、印度醫學研究委員會、印度社會科學研究委員會的研究中心,可以提供博士和博士以上的研究項目。印度的大學及學院的列表請參見印度大學聯盟(Association of Indian Universities):

http://www.aiuweb.org/Members/MembersA.asp

課程和學位
學士學位

一般學士課程要進行三年學習,並進行最後的考試。大學和高教機構頒發文學、自然科學、商學等學士學位。如工程學、醫學、牙醫學和藥學等專業科目的大學學位,則需要較長的學制,大約四年到五年半的時間。

碩士學位

文學、自然科學和醫學的課程,需要兩年時間獲得碩士學位。對於工程與技術學來說,需要一年半的時間。在一些特殊的領域,如教育學位,要求申請者必須擁有其他任何學科的學士學位,才能獲准學習。一些大學和高等教育機構提供短期課程的文憑或資格證書,科目包括工程學、農業科技和電子。課程長短因學校而異。




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Universities and specialized institutes are the centres for higher learning in India. The studies and disciplines cover a wide range of subjects from poetry to computer engineering to space research. Most of the universities and higher centres of learning and research are autonomous in function. A good number of universities have a federal structure composed of affiliated colleges on one tier and the university departments on the other. The affiliated colleges teach, in general, undergraduate courses, whereas the university departments conduct postgraduate teaching and advanced research. The university decides the criteria of admission into colleges and coordinates the first-degree examination in the undergraduate programs and award of degree.

Some other types of universities teach both undergraduate and postgraduate courses in general disciplines as well as in technical and professional courses. There are no affiliated colleges attached to them.

There is a third category of universities and institutions where technical and professional courses are taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels which include, among others, Indian Institute of Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Forest Research Institute, Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Some institutes only offer postgraduate and research courses such as Indian Agricultural Research Institute and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Research.

The distinctiveness, flexibility and the quality of higher education in India have been attracting more and more international students to come to Indian universities. In contrast to the expensive university and higher education offered in the western countries, higher education is still highly subsidized in India and therefore, affordable.

India's universities and university colleges

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India's current 226 university-level institutions, including the 39 "was recognized university." Of which 155 are traditional large Science, 34 Agricultural University, (including fisheries and livestock medicine, horticulture and dairy technology), 17 engineering and technical Universities, including the six technical colleges, 14 Medical University of Science and Technology, a national law university, Population Science Center, Indian Statistical Institute, Indian Academy of Sciences, a university press, an Ayurveda University, the five major women's Studies, 6 Sanskrit universities, 7 open universities, 7 music and fine arts university, a art history, environmental protection and Bo University of museum studies.

There are over 8000 colleges affiliated to these universities, it is estimated that nearly 5 million students in reading. Above The college has more than 150 offer MBBS and higher medical degrees, 74 dentistry, 90 pharmacy, 62 The nursing, 170 agriculture and related subjects, 428 engineering, 116 Ayurveda and homeopathy 75. Most of the conventional universities and colleges provide the basis for science, social sciences and humanities (including foreign languages, international customs Department, social studies, education and legal), BA, BSc, BCom, Bed, LLB, MA, MSc, Med, and a number of other higher Degree. 292 College offers MBA courses and related courses, including 4 dedicated School of Management, Is the center of higher learning. In addition to the University College of composition, there are a large number of affiliated colleges and universities system of science and engineering Industry Research Committee, Bhaba Atomic Research Center, Indian Agricultural Research Council, the Indian Medical Research Council, the Indian Social Science Research Council's Research Center, can provide doctoral and post-doctoral research projects. The list of Indian Universities and university colleges can be referred from Association of Indian Universities:

http://www.aiuweb.org/Members/MembersA.asp

Courses and Degrees
Undergraduate

A three-year undergraduate courses in general to study and conduct the final examinations. Liberal arts universities and higher education institutions awarded Science, natural sciences, Bachelor of Business Studies and so on. Such as engineering, medicine, dental medicine and pharmacy and other professional subjects of this Curriculum requirements of the education system longer, about four to five and a half's time.

Postgraduate

Liberal arts, natural sciences and medicine courses take two years to obtain a master's degree. For the Engineering Technology Studies For a year and a half's time. In some specific areas, such as Bachelor of Education require that an applicant who must Must have a bachelor's degree in any other subjects in order to be allowed to learn. Some universities and higher education institutions to provide a These short courses of the diploma or qualification, subjects such as engineering, agriculture, science and technology and computer science. Course length Short due to the school to another.

大學教育認可委員會(University Grants Commission,簡稱UGC)

大學教育認可委員會是一個法定機構,由國會法令成立於 1956 年,負責協調、判定和維護大學教育的標準。除了頒發認可給符合資格的院校,委員會也負責建議中央和地方邦政府對高等教育的發展所需的措施。委員會的總部位於新德里(New Delhi),地區辦事處則分別位於班加羅爾(Bangalore)、博帕爾(Bhopal)、 古瓦哈提(Guwahati)、海德拉巴(Hyderabad)、加爾各答(Kolkata)和浦那(Pune)。

The University Grants Commission is a statutory organization established by an Act of Parliament in 1956 for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education. Apart from providing grants to eligible universities and colleges, the Commission also advises the Central and State Governments on the measures which are necessary for the development of higher education. It functions from New Delhi as well as its six Regional Offices located in Bangalore, Bhopal, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Pune.

印度大學聯盟(Association of Indian Universities,簡稱AIU)

印度大學聯盟是根據社團註冊法成立的單位,會員包括印度各大學。它提供了一個論壇讓會員的管理單位與大學院士就共同關注的事項進行意見交換。它的角色在於扮演高等教育中資訊交流的平台,並出版許多實用的書刊,包括《大學手冊》 (Universities Handbook),研究論文和標題為 《 大學新聞》 (University News) 的週刊。目前該協會共有 900 名成員,包括法國巴黎國際大學聯盟(International Association of Universities, Paris, France)、和中國亞洲大學體育聯盟 (The Asian University Sports Federation, China)。

The Association of Indian universities(AIU) is a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 with membership of Indian Universities. It provides a forum for administrators and academicians of member universities to exchange views and discuss matters of common concern. It acts as a bureau of information exchange in higher education and brings out a number of useful publications, including the "Universities Handbook", research papers and a weekly journal titled "University News". The present membership of the Association is 900 (including two International Association of Universities(IAU), Paris, France and The Asian university Sports Federation(AUSF), China).

visit Website of www.aiuweb.org.

委員會
印度社會科學研究委員會 | INDIAN COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH (ICSSR) New Delhi

印度社會科學研究委員會(Indian Council of Social Science Research,ICSSR)是促進社會科學研究、加強不同學科、提高量化研究和其在國家政策制訂時的品質。為了實現這些目標,ICSSR 規劃體制基礎結構的發展、尋找研究人才、制定研究方案、贊助專業組織,並且和其它國家的社會科學家建立聯繫。ICSSR 提供維護和發展授予 27 研究所和六個區域中心在全國各地。區域中心已設置為 ICSSR,以分散的方式支援研究和發展本地人才和其方案和活動的擴展軍備。

The Indian Council of Social Science Research ICSSR) was established for promoting social science research, strengthening different disciplines, improving quality and quantum of research and its utilization in national policy formulation. To realize these objectives, the ICSSR envisaged development of institutional infrastructure, identifying research talents, formulating research programmes, upporting professional organizations and establishing linkages with social scientists in other countries. The ICSSR provides maintenance and development grants to 27 Research Institutes and six Regional Centres across the country. Regional Centres have been set-up as extended arms of the ICSSR to support research and development of local talents and its programmes and activities in a decentralized manner.

visit Website of www.icssr.org.

• 印度哲學研究委員會 | INDIAN COUNCIL OF PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCH

印度哲學研究委員會由印度中央政府教育部所成立,作為一個自主的組織,主要促進哲學與相關的學術研究。委員會由廣泛的成員組成,包括傑出的哲學家、社會學家、大學教育認可委員會代表、印度社會科學研究委員會、印度歷史研究委員會、印度國家科學院、中央政府和邦政府的代表。委員會的主管機構 (GB) 和研究專案委員會 (RPC) 擁有相當的權力及職能進行管理。

Indian Council of Philosophical Research was set up by the Ministry of Education, Government of India as an autonomous organization for the promotion of research in Philosophy and allied discipline. The Council has a broad-based membership comprising of distinguished philosophers, social scientists, representatives of the University Grants Commission, Indian Council of Social Science Research, Indian Council of Historic Research, Indian National Science Academy, the Central Government and the Government of Uttar Pradesh. The Governing Body (GB) and the Research Project Committee (RPC) are the main authorities of the council. These bodies are vested with well defined powers and functions.

visit Website of www.icpr.in.

• 印度科學、哲學、文化史計畫 | PROJECT OF HISTORY OF INDIAN SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY & CULTURE (PHISPC)

PHISPC 在 1990 年在印度哲學研究委員會的主持下展開,基本目標包括開展跨學科研究以便可以詳細帶出科學、哲學和文化的連結,如印度長遠的文明,一向相互影響。從 1997 年 4 月 1 日起,PHISPC 正式從印度哲學研究委員會獨立出來,擁有更大的自主權以在期限內完成這項工程,現在附屬於文明研究中心。

PHISPC was launched in the year 1990 under the aegis of Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR) with the basic objective of undertaking inter-disciplinary study so that inter-connection between Science, Philosophy and Culture as developed in the long history of Indian civilization, could be brought out in detail. From April 1, 1997, PHISPC was officially de-linked from Indian Council of Philosophical Research for a greater autonomy to complete the Project by the stipulated period, and is now affiliated to Centre for Studies in Civilizations.

visit Website of www.phispc.nic.in.

• 印度歷史研究委員會 | INDIAN COUNCIL OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH (ICHR)

印度歷史研究委員會是一個自主的組織。委員會的主要目標是給予歷史研究適切的方向,鼓勵、促進客觀並科學的歷史寫作。委員會彙聚了一群歷史學家,為意見交流提供一個平台;按照國家的方向,提出客觀理性的歷史詮釋;贊助歷史研究計畫和專案;協助機構和組織從事歷史研究。它研究廣泛的歷史面向,包括科學和技術、經濟、藝術、文學、哲學、煉金學、貨幣學、考古學、社會經濟的形成過程和包含偏重歷史內容的聯合科目。

Indian Council of Historical Research is an autonomous organization. The prime objectives of the Council are to give a proper direction to historical research and to encourage and foster objective and scientific writing of history. The broad aims of the Council are to bring historians together, provide a forum for exchange of views between them, give a national direction to an objective and rational presentation interpretation of history, to sponsor historical research programmes and projects and to assist institutions and organizations engaged in historical research. It has a broad view of history so as to include in its fold the history of Science and Technology, Economy, Art, Literature, Philosophy, Epigraphy, Numismatics, Archaeology, Socio-Economic formation processes and allied subjects containing strong historical bias and contents.

visit Website of www.ichrindia.org.

• 國家農業研究機構委員會,位於海德拉巴 | NATIONAL COUNCIL OF RURAL INSTITUTES (NCRI), HYDERABAD

國家農業研究機構委員會是一個完全由中央政府籌設的獨立社團。其主要目標是促進農村高等教育,這是 1986 年印度聖雄甘地為了規劃國家政策的轉型,而設定的農村地區的教育目標。

The National Council of Rural Institute is a registered autonomous society fully funded by the Central Government. Its main objectives are to promote rural higher education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi's vision for education so as to take up challenges of micro planning for transformation of rural areas as envisaged in National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986.

visit Website of www.ncri.in.

其它高等教育機構
• 印度高等研究機構,位於西姆拉 | INDIAN INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDY, SHIMLA

印度高等研究機構是對基本主題和生命與思想問題的的自由、創造性探索的中心。該研究所的職能包括:組織全國研討會、講座、研討會和會議等;邀請印度和海外訪問學者和客座教授;整理研究、分析結果,並編輯為出版物;其他學術或政府機構的合作;頒發獎學金給予進行獨立研究的學者和研究人員。

The Indian Institute of Advanced Study (IIAS), Shimla is a residential center for free and creative enquiry into the fundamental themes and problems of life and thought. The functions of the Institute includes: organizing National Seminars, Lectures, Symposia, Conferences etc; inviting Visiting Professors and Visiting Scholars from India and abroad; making arrangements for pooling the results of research, analyzing and adopting them in terms of their social relevance for the publication; collaborating with other academic or governmental bodies in the dissemination of knowledge; and awarding Fellowships for conduct of independent research by scholars and researchers.

visit Website of www.iias.org.

• 薩基爾候賽因博士紀念學院信託 | DR. ZAKIR HUSAIN MEMORIAL COLLEGE TRUST

薩基爾候賽因博士紀念學院信託由印度政府成立於 1973 年,管理和維護薩基爾候賽因博士學院 (原德里學院。總理是信託的主席、副總理是人力資源開發部長)。信託沒有自己的資源,由人力資源發展部高等教育部與教育署資助。

Dr. Zakir Husain Memorial College Trust, Delhi was established in 1973 to manage and maintain Zakir Husain College (formerly Delhi College. Prime Minister is the Chairperson of the Trust and Minister of Human Resource Development is the Vice-Chairperson. Since the Trust has no resource of its own, grants are provided by the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.

SHRI LAL BAHADUR SHASTRI RASHTRIYA SANSKRIT VIDYAPEETHYA, NEW DELHI
RASHTRIYA SANSKRIT VIDYAPEETHA, TIRUPATI

這兩個機構成立於一九六二年和一九八六年,分別保存了梵語學術的學習,以及推廣梵語的語言、文學、哲學教學與研究。一九八七年這些機構被宣佈為「大學資格學術機構」。這兩所機構透過各專案和活動有效地實現其目標的。這些機構每年由大學認可委員會資助其開支。

The two institutions were established in 1962 and 1986 respectively with the objective of preserving learning of Shastras as well as promotion of Sanskrit language, literature, philosophy through teaching and research. These institutions were declared as 'Deemed to be University' in the year 1987. A number of programmes and activities for realising their objectives in effective manner have been started by both these institutions. These institutions receive annual grants through the University Grants Commission for meeting their expenses.

• 國立教育規劃與管理大學 | NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (NUEPA)

國立教育規劃與管理大學是一個自主的組織,由人力資源發展部高等教育署提供充分的資金設置。研究機構的目標是進行、促進和協調教育規劃和管理的研究,提供培訓和諮詢服務,在此欄位中,培養和東方關鍵級國家機關工作人員,以及高級級別的管理員從中心和國家,與其他機構、 機構和組織合作,培訓和其他國家特別是亞洲地區的教育規劃和管理領域的研究提供設施,作好準備、 印刷和出版報紙、 期刊和書籍,與其他國家分享經驗和專業知識方面的教育規劃和管理,並進行比較研究,以促進這些目標。

The National University of Educational Planning and Administration(NUEPA) is an autonomous organisation set up and fully financed by the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development. The objectives of the Institute are to undertake, promote and coordinate research in educational planning and administration, provide training and consultancy services in this field, to train and orient key level functionaries as well as senior level administrators from the centre and states, to collaborate with other agencies, institutions and organisations, to provide facilities for training and research to other countries particularly of the Asian region in the field of educational planning and administration and to prepare, print and publish papers, periodicals and books, to share experience and expertise in the area of educational planning and administration with other countries and to conduct comparative studies for the furtherance of these objectives.

visit Website of www.nuepa.Org.